Evolutionary Hypothesis in Cell Cycle of Breast Cancer Patients: Mosaic Phases in Single Cancer Cells


  • Parvin Mehdipour Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8358-263X




Cell cycle, Mosaic Phases, evolutionary hypothesis, breast cancer, FISH, Protein expression


Introduction: Cell cycle shapes the initiation, progression and therapeutic approaches of neoplasms. An uncontrolled cell proliferation and growth are the key characteristics of either malignant or benign tumors. The programmed check points control the transition of phases through the related barriers. Therefore, balancing the carcinogenic processes may inhibit progression and facilitate a targeted-base therapy.

Methods: The present study is performed in interphase. Detection of the Mosaic Phases (MPs) by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization was confirmed by assaying the protein expression (PE) including immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.

Results: The novel hypothesis reflects the presence of dual and/or multi-phases, as minor clones in single cells of breast cancer (BC) patients. This finding led to initiate a model with applicable ratio values and different MPs including G1/S, S/G2 and G1/S/G2, accompanied by normal phases (G1, S, G2). The remarkable harmonic behaviors between signal copy numbers and the corresponding PE, dual- and triple- co-expression between different cyclins combination including E/B1 and D1/E/B1 and the other involved proteins were observed. The ratio of gain to normal signals appeared to be a good prognosis for chromosome 1, but better survival was significantly obtained for this ratio in chromosome 3

Conclusion: The predisposing-diagnostic-predictive-prognostic-preventive panels may lead to innovate the CDKs inhibitor-based therapy by considering the MPs Model; and may also be considered for clinical classification, in BC and other cancers.


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How to Cite

Mehdipour, P. (2022). Evolutionary Hypothesis in Cell Cycle of Breast Cancer Patients: Mosaic Phases in Single Cancer Cells. Journal of Cancer Research Updates, 11, 43–53. https://doi.org/10.30683/1929-2279.2022.11.07