A Guide for Future Therapeutics Based upon the Function of Enzymes and Proteins in Human Pathologic Metabolic Processes


  • Umesh C. Gupta Emeritus Research Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Charlottetown Research and Development Centre, 440 University Ave, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4N6, Canada
  • Subhas C. Gupta Chairman and Professor, The Department of Plastic Surgery, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California 92354, USA




Mitochondria, metastasis, obesity, caloric restriction, cardiovascular disease.


The investigation updates information on enzymes and proteins related to their classification, functions,
properties, and role in human pathology. Enzymes are any of a group of complex or conjugated proteins that are
produced by living cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions. The three types of enzymes, metabolic,
digestive and food-based, play key roles in the treatment of all the major sources of morbidity and mortality including
cancer, dementia, diabetes, cardiac disease, and obesity. The ability to accurately target metabolic pathways and
pathologic pathways allow adaptations by changing the expression of specific enzymes implicated in the pathogenesis or
prevention of diseases. This overview provides a summary to guide the development of enzyme-based therapeutics. The
changes of expression and activity of lipid metabolising enzymes are directly regulated by oncogenic signals. Hyper
activation of the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] pathway may be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells. Amyloid
beta (Aβ) peptides play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sphingolipid metabolites play
important roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism. In diabetes and insulin resistance, sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1)
is the key enzyme in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. SPK1 gene therapy may represent a novel approach to wound
healing related to diabetes. Several P450s enzymes modulate important steps in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart
disease (IHD). The homologous sirtuin (Sirt) family of proteins have beneficial effects in metabolism and aging-related
diseases in mammalian systems. These proteins play an important role in maintaining neuronal health during aging.


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How to Cite

Gupta, U. C. ., & Gupta, S. C. . (2017). A Guide for Future Therapeutics Based upon the Function of Enzymes and Proteins in Human Pathologic Metabolic Processes. Journal of Cancer Research Updates, 6(3), 56–69. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-2279.2017.06.03.2