Epidemiological and Pathological Aspects of Head and Neck Cancers in Togo
Keywords:Cancer, head and neck, epidemiology, pathology, Togo.
Purpose:Head and neck cancers are a major public health issue. Its current incidence is unknown in Togo. This study aimed at determining the epidemiological and histological features of head and neck cancers in Togo.
Materials and Methods: We examined data from patients files recorded in the registers of laboratory of pathology of the university teaching hospital of Lomé. The study concerned data of the patients received from January 1994 to December 2013. We selected only the files whose diagnosis was a cancer. The parameters analyzed were: frequency, age, gender of patients, site, macroscopic and histological type of cancer.
Results: Epidemiological, we collected 5234 cases of cancer of which 309cases ORL cancers, representing 5.1% of all cancer cases. The annual frequency was 15.09 cases. The average age was 45 years ranging from 3 to 87 years and a peak incidence between 41-50 years (20%). Sex ratio of 1.55.
Concerning pathological, the salivary gland cancers were the most prevalent (28.2%) followed by larynx cancers (24%). Four groups histological were observed: Carcinomas 196cases (63.43%), lymphomas 105cases (33.98%), 6 cases sarcomas (1.94%) and 2cases melanomas (0.65%). The squamous carcinoma (40.78%) was the most frequent carcinomas. The high grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas (48,4%) were common with prevalent Burkitt lymphoma.
Conclusion: the head and neck cancers are prevalent in young adults in Togo. The squamous carcinoma is the most common histological type.
Barnes C, Everson J, Reichart P, Sidransky D. Pathology and genetics, Head and neck tumors. World Health Organization Classification of tumors. Lyon: IARC Press 2005.
Lacau St Guily JL. Head and neck cancer: towards a more effective and less damaging therapeutic strategy. Rev Prat 2006; 56(15): 1634-6.
Cojocariu OM, Huguet F, lefèvre M, Périé S. Facteurs pronostiques et prédictifs des cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures. Bull Cancer 2009; 96(4): 369-78.
Parkin DM, Ferlay J, Hamdi-Chérif M, Sitas F, Thomas JO, Wabinga H, et al. Cancer in Africa: Epidemiology and Prevention. IARC Scientific Publications 2003; No. 153, Lyon, IARC Press.
Adeyi A, Olugbenga SJ. The challenges of managing tumors of the head and neck malignancies in a tertiary care center of tropical Nigerai. Pan Afr Med 2011; 10: 31.
Hill C, Doyon F. The frequency of cancer in France: mortality trends since 1950 and summary of the report on the causes of cancer. Bull Cancer 2008; 95: 5-10.
Aswani J, Baidoo K, Otiti J. Establishing a head and neck unit in a developing country. J Laryngol Otol 2012; 126(6): 552-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215112000333
Onzotto G, Koffi-Aka V, Yotio A, Ehouo F, Adjoua B, Bamba M: [Oto-rhino-laryngology and geriatrics in the Ivory Coast]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 2002; 123(2): 119-23.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco habits other than smoking. IARC monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. IARC, Lyon 1985; 37: 1-291.
Sturgis EM, Cinciripini PM. Trends in head and neck cancer incidence in relation to smoking prevalence: an emerging epidemic of human papillomavirus-associated cancers? Cancer 2007; 110(7): 1429-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22963
Peng J, Ménégoz F, Lesec'h JM, Remontet L, Grosclaude P, Buémi A, et al. [Larynx cancer in France: descriptive epidemiology and incidence estimation] Bull Cancer 2004; 91(4): 363-8.
Iseh K. Laryngectomie totale pour le cancer du larynx dans un centre de soins tertiaires nigérien: pronostic et résultat. J Surg cas Rep 2011; 3(1): 23-30.
Bamba M, Kouassi B, Ette A, Haeffner G, Ehouo F, Boquifo J, Adjoua RP, Cacouchia: [Epidemiological study of otorhinolaryngologic cancers in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Apropos of 204 cases]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord) 1986; 107(5): 385-90
Kirk O, Pedersen C, Cozzi-Lepri A, Antunes F, Miller V, Gatell JM, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood 2001; 98: 3406-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.V98.12.3406
Keita M, Kampo MI, Timbo SK, Traoré CB, Diallo M, Doumbia-Singaré K, et al. Morbidity of the tumors of the head and neck in Bamako. Mali Med 2009; 24(3): 1-6.
Babin E, Joly F, Vadillo M, Dehesdin D. Oncology and quality of life. Study in head and neck cancer; Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 2005; 122(3): 134-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-438X(05)82338-2