Chronic Inflammatory Mediators Induced Malignant Changes in Inflammatory Microenvironment of Oral Potentialy Malignant Conditions - An Emerging Concept

Authors

  • T.G. Shrihari Department of Oral Medicine and Oncology, Krishna Devaraya College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Bangalore -562157, Karnataka, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30683/1927-7229.2018.07.04.3

Keywords:

MDSC(Myeloid derived suppressor cells), VEGF(Vascular endothelial growth factor), TNF(Tumor necrosis factor), TGF(Transforming growth factor), Oral Submucous fibrosis, Oral Lichen planus, NF-kB, STAT-3,Carcinoma associated fibroblast, Tumor associated macrophage.

Abstract

Potentially malignant conditions of the oral cavity are potential threat to mankind because of its malignant changes later. Oral potentially malignant conditions are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder affecting oral mucosa. Inflammatory mediators induced by chronic inflammatory microenvironment of premalignant conditions are cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteolytic enzymes, released by inflammatory cells such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, activate transcriptional factors such as NF-kB, STAT-3 and HIF-1, promotes cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor promotion, resistant to apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, induced invasion and metastasis. Carcinoma associated fibroblasts in tumor microenvironment originated by activated fibroblasts secretes cytokines and growth factors promotes tumor progression by cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell survival, genomic instability, invasion and metastasis. Myeloid derived suppressor cells are specialized heterogeneous immature myeloid progenitor cells that are dendritic cells, macrophages, granulocytes produced upon chronic inflammatory mediators. These cells responsible for immune evasion, immunosuppression and tumor progression by various mechanisms and interaction with other immune cells, activating transcriptional factors such as NF-kB and STAT-3. This article describe about roles of chronic inflammatory cells and their mediators in inflammatory microenvironment of premalignant conditions bring about malignant changes in oral sub mucous fibrosis and oral lichen planus.  

References

Mc Cormack VA, Boffetta P. Today’s lifestyles, tomorrow’s cancers; Trends in lifestyle risk factors for cancer in low- and middle – income countries. Ann Oncol 2011; 22: 2349-57. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdq763

Tabishur R, Ghulam SH. Oral cancer awareness in cancer capital of india: An insight. International Journal of Current Research 2018; 10(2): 650510-645054.

Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Tharakan ST, Lai OS, et al. cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. Pharm Res 2008; 25: 2097-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9

Warnakulasuriya S. Global epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral Oncol 2009; 45: 309-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2008.06.002

Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 2010; 60: 277-300. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20073

Elango JK, Sundaram KR, Gangadharan P, Subhas P, Peter S, Pulayath C, et al. Factors affecting oral cancer awareness in a high – risk population in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2009; 10: 627-30.

Vishakaha G, Anoop K, Komal S, Gagandeep K. Chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis-Emerging role of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. Cancer Research Frontiers 2016; 2(2): 200-225. https://doi.org/10.17980/2016.200

Sahingur SE, Yeudall WA. Chemokine function in periodontal disease and oral cavity cancer. Front Immunol 2015; 6: 214-229. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00214

Shabnam S, Michael K. Immunity, Inflammation, and cancer: an eternal fight between good and evil. The Journal of Clin Invest 2015; 125(9): 3347-3355. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI80007

Sheppard K, Kinross KM, Solomon B, Pearson RB, Phillips WA. Targeting PI3 kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling in cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis 2012; 17: 69-95. https://doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.v17.i1.60

Pollard JW. Trophic macrophages in development and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology 2009; 9: 259-270. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri2528

Hao NB, Lu MH, Fan YH, Cao YL, Zhang ZR, Yang SM. Macrophages in tumor microenvironments and the progression of tumors. Clinical & Developmental Immunology 2012; 24: 450-461. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/948098

Thiago TM, Ivan CM, Olivier H. The role of mast cells in cancers. F100 Prime Rep 2015; 7: 9.

Shrihari TG, Vijeev V, Soundarya K, Deepa Reddy, Manjunath V. Devaraju D. Anti-inflammatory dietary supplements in the chemoprevention of cancer. Cancer Research Frontiers 2016; 2(3): 380-395. https://doi.org/10.17980/2016.380

Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, Inflammation, and Cancer. Cell 2010; 6: 883-899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.025

Shrihari TG, Vasudevan V, Manjunath V, Devaraju D. Potential Co-relation between chronic periodontitis and cancer- An emerging concept. Gulf Journal of Oncology 2016; 1(20): 20-24.

Korniluk A, Koper O, Kemona H, Dymicka- Piekarska. From inflammation to cancer. Irish Journal of Medical Science 2016; 10: 45-52.

Burkholder B, Huang RY, Burgess R, Luo S, Jones VS, Zhang W et al. Tumor –induced perturbation of cytokines and immune cell networks. Biochimica ET Biophysica Acta- Reviews on Cancer 2014; 2: 182-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.01.004

Chimal-Ramirez GK, Espinoza-Sanchez NA, Fuentes- Panana ES. Protumor Activities of the immune response: Insights in the mechanisms of Immunological shift, oncotraining, and oncopromotion. Journal of Oncology 2013; 7: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/835956

Gabrilovich DI, Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Bronte V. Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours. Nature Reviews Immunology 2012; 12: 253-268. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri3175

Colotta F, Allavena P, Sica A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A. Cancer-related inflammation,the seventh hallmark of cancer: links to genetic instability. Carcinogenesis 2009; 30(7): 1073-81. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgp127

Mantovani A. Macrophages, Neutrophils and cancer: A double edged sword. New Journal of Science 2014; 8: 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/271940

Downloads

Published

2018-08-10

How to Cite

T.G. Shrihari. (2018). Chronic Inflammatory Mediators Induced Malignant Changes in Inflammatory Microenvironment of Oral Potentialy Malignant Conditions - An Emerging Concept. Journal of Analytical Oncology, 7(4), 82–89. https://doi.org/10.30683/1927-7229.2018.07.04.3

Issue

Section

Articles